Outgoing Gambian President Yahya Jammeh has declared a 90-day state of emergency a day before his official mandate ends, state TV reports.
Regional leaders have been unsuccessfully trying to persuade him to hand over power to Adama Barrow, who won December's elections.
The move comes after Nigeria deployed a warship to further pressure Mr Jammeh.
Regional bloc Ecowas has prepared a force but maintains that military intervention would be a last resort.
The exact terms of the state of emergency remain unknown, as no details were provided with the announcement.
Mr Barrow is meant to be inaugurated as the new president on Thursday.
Mr Jammeh initially accepted the election results but then decided he wanted them annulled after the electoral commission admitted some errors, although it insists this did not affect the final outcome.
The Supreme Court is unable to hear the challenge until May because of a shortage of judges, and Mr Jammeh has said he will not step down until then.